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    Archived pages: 321 . Archive date: 2013-03.

  • Title: Tubercolosis
    Descriptive info: Menu.. Thursday 21 March 2013.. News.. Main Symptoms.. Main Deseases.. Laboratory Τests.. Medications.. Pneumonology Articles.. Medical Articles.. Article Editors.. You ask - We Answer.. Congresses.. Guidelines.. Links.. Books Presentation.. Editorials.. Just another WordPress.. com site.. PNEUMON quarterly medical journal.. HELLENIC THORACIC SOCIETY.. Athens Medical Center.. Read More.. Tubercolosis.. Tuberculosis.. CAUSES.. Caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Bacillus of Koch (the name of the physician who discovered and).. TRANSMISSION.. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease, which may be offensive to all organa.. I transmission is primarily through the respiratory tract (droplet from the speech, laughing, coughing, sneezing, etc.. ).. SYMPTOMS.. The main symptoms of TB are.. * Cough.. * Expectoration.. * Sweats.. * Dekatiki febrile movement (mainly in the afternoon).. * Payment.. * Loss of body weight.. DIANOSTIKOS CONTROL.. * Chest X-ray.. * Fymatinoantidrasi (mantoux).. * Search of Mycobacterium in sputum or other biological material of the body.. NB: The discovery of Mycobacterium is set with certainty the diagnosis.. PREVENTION.. This is mainly achieved by early detection of new infections and to vaccination (tuberculostatics vaccine BCG).. THERAPY.. Treatment must fulfill 3 basic principles.. 1.. combination of several drugs (because mycobacterium easily develop resistance - "resistance").. 2.. the decision be made once a day.. 3.. life is many months of treatment (regimens  ...   20-40mg/kg CV.. Ototoxikotis, Nefrotoxikotis.. Table 1.. SOME MAJOR NEED TO KNOW.. * A regular monitoring of the patient in the evolution of health but also because tuberculostatics have many side effects (damage to liver, kidney, visual and auditory nerve, increased uric acid, etc.. * About 2 weeks of starting treatment, the disease ceases to spread.. * The dermoantidrasi tuberculosis or fymatinoantidrasi or commonly mantoux, allows us to know if someone has a positive molynthei.. I mantoux means contamination but not necessarily nosisi.. Thetiki is also following vaccination.. NB: the mantoux is in front of the forearm (Fig.. 1).. The result we see after 48-72 ores.. An point that has been created by fymatinoantidrasi skin induration, is measured at the transverse diameter (figure.. 2).. considered positive when the induration is greater than 10 mm and in some cases if more than 5 chiliosta.. Apli redness of the skin is not assessed.. εικ.. 1" onmouseover="function onmouseover() { function onmouseover() { this.. style.. backgroundColor='#ebeff9' } }" style="background-color: #ffffff;">.. fig.. 1.. 2" onmouseover="function onmouseover() { function onmouseover() { this.. backgroundColor='#ebeff9' } }">.. Fig.. 2.. Nikolaos D.. Chainis.. Go Back.. Contact us.. About Us.. View our videos.. Search.. Articles.. Authors.. Questions - Answers.. Photos.. fig1.. Homepage.. Authors.. Pneumonological Articles.. You Ask - We Answer.. Contact.. Info..

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  • Title: Sleep apnea syndrome
    Descriptive info: Sleep apnea syndrome.. Syndrome of sleep apnea.. " onmouseover="function onmouseover() { this.. backgroundColor='#ebeff9' }" style="background-color: #ffffff;">.. It is a syndrome that was discovered in recent years and is called: sleep apnea syndrome or sleep apnea syndrome or obstructive sleep.. It is a common disorder that manifests in.. * Severe snoring (it should be noted here that this syndrome occurs almost always with intense snoring, but instead the intense snoring alone does not necessarily imply syndrome).. * Recurrent episodes of stopping breathing (apnea).. * Mikroafypniseis during sleep.. This destroyed the normal sleep and the patient has.. * Difficulty in awakening.. * Breakfast headaches.. * Severe fatigue and sleepiness the day.. Due to the closure of the upper airway (the same walls of the airways due to anatomy) (fig.. Is impaired with severe and dangerous consequences, but once diagnosed, treated panta.. I diagnosed with so-called "sleep study" or.. "polysomatokatagrafiki sleep study.. See how the red square is a closed airway and compare the respective area (green square) in a healthy person.. To learn more about the stillness syndrome, see below.. Obstructive sleep sleep.. The syndrome of sleep apnea (TMR) or sleep syndrome is said to be a sufficiently serious and frequent disruption to all ages and both fylon.. Sychnotera but occurs in men over the age of 40.. The overall effect of the population is about 4-6%.. But what is the stillness syndrome?.. These recurrent episodes of breathing cessation (for we say `apnea) during ypnou.. Oi  ...   TMR?.. Besides the intense snoring and restless sleep in general there is also:.. * Daily fatigue and drowsiness (one of the causes of chronic fatigue syndrome).. * Impaired memory and impaired concentration of attention.. * Irritability and generally changing the nature.. * Sexual dysfunction-impotence.. The consequences are many and serious.. * Risk of sudden death during sleep.. * Arterial hypertension.. * Stroke.. * Cardiovascular disorders.. * Or traffic accidents (many of these accidents are due to the syndrome).. * Psychological and endocrine disorders.. Therefore it should be diagnosed and treated early.. The diagnosis is made by so-called "polysomatokatagrafiki sleep study" or just "sleep study" where during sleep the patient in the "connected" with a special machine which records various parameters such episodes snoring, apnea and ypopnoias, blood oxygenation,.. heart rate, etc.. This morning we are able to know if someone is suffering from the syndrome stillness and to what extent that is similar to the therapeutic prosengisi.. Teleionontas should be noted that the syndrome of sleep apnea is cured forever.. Treatment in some cases may be surgery, but usually treated with a special machine of continuous positive airway pressure (C-PAP, Fig.. 2), which has a mask applied to the nose of the patient (Fig.. 3) and blows the.. air pressure, resulting in the upper airway is not closed and so abolished apnea and the patient sleeps normally.. 2 Fig.. 3.. (*) We thank the captain of Å.. Í.. k.. Lazarou John, who created the sketch..

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  • Title: Interstizial lung diseases
    Descriptive info: Interstizial lung diseases.. INTERSTIZIAL LUNG DISEASES.. By this characteristic of a heterogeneous group of lung diseases which affect both the pulmonary parenchyma and the airways, have common characteristics (clinical, imaging, etc.. ) and are characterized by chronic inflammation.. Progressive may result in pulmonary fibrosis.. CLASSIFICATION.. Occasionally different classifications have been proposed the last of which distinguishes them into 5 categories:.. Diseases associated with systemic diseases.. (eg rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, polymyositis-dermatomyositis, Κοκκιωμάτωση Wegener, Kokkiomatosi Churg-Strauss, Vechet Syndrome, Syndrome Goodpasture, Idiopathic Pulmonary Aimosidirosi, systemic sclerosis).. Diseases caused by drugs or environmental factors.. (Extrinsic allergic kypseliditida, Silicosis, etc.. Granulomatous disease.. (Sarcoidosis, Virylliosi, Istiokyttarosi, etc.. 4.. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.. (Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, acute interstitial pneumonia, Kryptogenis periodically organized pneumonia, etc.. 5.. Other interstitial lung disease.. (Amyloidosis, eosinophilic pneumonia, Lymphocytic interstitial  ...   * Creak Fine rales at the hearing.. * Common imaging features.. * Restrictive type ventilation disorder and decrease the expansive capacity of the lungs, where the operational control of breathing.. * Pulmonary fibrosis in the later stages.. DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION.. Besides the clinical and physical examination, which often guide us in 'a particular disease, the confirmation will be made with the laboratory findings, which include.. * Blood tests.. * Computed tomography thorax usually high definition, which in many cases, diagnostic.. * Operational control breathing (spirometry expansive lung capacity).. * Vronchokypselidiki bronchoscopy and leaching.. * Lung biopsy (a) Diavronchiki biopsy.. or (b) Open biopsy.. Treatment in most of these diseases requires.. * High doses of corticosteroid (cortisone).. * Immunosuppressive drugs.. * In some cases and under specific conditions required lung transplantation..

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  • Title: Pleurisy,Pleural effusion,Pneumothorax
    Descriptive info: Pleurisy,Pleural effusion,Pneumothorax.. Among the chest wall and lungs is a thin membrane which is called the pleural (Fig.. 1).. This consists of 2 parts (petals):.. ; An internal (Visceral pleural) covering the lungs.. , And an external (pleural toichomatikos) covering the chest wall.. The 2 pleural petals forming a cavity between them which contains a small amount of fluid (pleural fluid), which under normal circumstances is less than 1ml.. This liquid acts as a lubricant (to avoid friction between the petals of the pleura in respiratory movements).. Fig 1.. Increasing this amount of pleural fluid, which occurs only in pathological conditions, called: pleural effusion or pleurisy wet (fig.. 2), and any inflammation of the pleura without increasing the liquid is called: dry pleurisy.. The pleural fluid can be only one half thorax or both (bilateral pleural effusion).. The collection of blood: aimothorakas (eg after an injury of the chest wall).. Causes of pleurisy.. The causes of increased pleural fluid are numerous.. Many diseases of the lungs, heart and other systems, can cause pleurisy.. We mention some of the most important of them.. ; Infections (eg pneumonia).. ; Special infections (pch.. fymatiosi).. Neoplasms;.. Lymphomas;.. Mesothelioma;.. Pulmonary embolism;.. ; Refmatoedis disease other interstitial lung disease.. Heart disease;.. Renal Diseases;.. Diseases of the colon;.. Pancreatitis;.. Poor nutrition;.. ; After surgery in the chest and abdomen.. Diagnostic maneuvers.. Puncture;.. Pleural biopsy;.. Thorakoskopisi;.. Laboratory tests pleural fluid.. General CA;.. Glucose-LDH;.. ; Stains Cultures for bacteria.. Cytological;.. Treatment.. The treatment is proportionate to the cause that has caused, such as antibiotics if  ...   divided into:.. primary: air bubbles (sch.. 4).. Mainly healthy young adults.. secondary: an underlying disease may epiplakoun with pneumothorax (eg COPD, vronch.. asthma, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, etc.. sch.. 4.. B.. TRAUMAL PNEUMOTHORAX.. Traumatic: after trauma.. Iatrogenic: after medical treatment (eg biopsy or puncture the chest).. C.. ARTIFICIAL PNEUMOTHORAX.. Several years ago causing artificial pneumothorax to treat tuberculosis technique has been abandoned today.. Symptomatology.. The main symptom is a sharp stabbing pain in the chest.. In cases where the pneumothorax is large or "live" may be accompanied by shortness of breath.. Diagnosis - Treatment.. If the pneumothorax is large, it can be diagnosed even by simply listening, otherwise a simple chest radiograph is sufficient.. The treatment depends on the size.. The small pneumothorax absorbed himself and need not be any manipulation.. In doubt the patient is under observation for at least 24/oro.. Inhalation of Oxygen accelerates absorption.. In cases where the pneumothorax.. Is large;.. ; Is 'live'.. Pleural fluid coexist;.. , Accompanied by great dyspnoea.. , Is small but growing.. ; For both half thorax rib cage (bilateral).. ; Has happened previously in the other half thorax Pneumothorax.. should be a drainage tube.. In those cases fails epanekptyxi lung or have frequent relapses, is.. ; 'Plefrodesia "(as in recurrent pleural effusion) is injected various substances which develop adhesions between the petals of pleural.. ; Surgical scraping of the pleura: aims to break the bubbles present in the pleural.. diagnostic puncture of the chest.. puncture of the chest to remove a large amount of pleural fluid.. fig2.. fig3.. fig5..

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  • Title: PROFESSIONAL DISEASES : Asbestos, Silicosis
    Descriptive info: PROFESSIONAL DISEASES : Asbestos, Silicosis.. ASBESTOS.. CAN CAUSE 4 DISEASES.. Asbestosis.. Pleural plaques.. Pleural effusions.. Cancer.. (in first line : Mesothelioma).. The first 3 are benign diseases.. ASBESTOSIS.. It usually occurs after 15-20 years of continuous exposure to asbestos.. Belongs in occupational diseases.. In the early stages displayed a dry cough, shortness of breath later with fatigue, frequent infections, respiratory failure and cardiopulmonary end.. The damage caused to the lungs are: fibrosis.. Early diagnosis and removal from the workplace to prevent disease progression.. The median survival (the full development of the disease) is about 15 years.. The disease is not reversible, so the best treatment is to remove the cause.. If the disease is fully installed treatment  ...   pleura, but no other problems.. The biggest problem is (with the appearance of pleural effusion) is diagnostic.. PLEURAL PLAQUES.. Thickening of the pleura that look like X-ray 'plates' and prove that the person had once been in contact with asbestos.. Most of the time by chance finding.. MESOTHELIOMA.. Mesothelioma or malignant disease of the pleura or peritoneum (abdominal)-rare.. It is the only form that is not related to dose exposure because it can occur after short exposure to asbestos.. Also in an approximately 15-20% report no evidence of any patient to asbestos.. It usually occurs 40 years after exposure.. Metastasizes easily and does not respond well to therapy (chemotherapy, etc).. Average survival time: 1-1 ½ year.. SILICOSIS..

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  • Title: Spirometry
    Descriptive info: Laboratory Examinations.. Spirometry.. The spirometry is a simple but fundamental consideration in monitoring respiratory function.. It is valuable both in diagnosis and monitoring of various lung diseases, such as.. * Of asthma.. * Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc.. This review is the spirometer (note here that there are many types spirometry).. The spirometer has usually a tube one end of which is connected to the machine and adjust the other a mouthpiece through which by the interviewee, as shown by the photo.. , inhale and expire on power.. But it needs good cooperation from the question (as can inhaling more deeply and immediately after maximum-sharp and prolonged expiration) in order to get reliable results.. Figure 1 is spirometry a young 20 years old, healthy.. Figure 1.. It is measured inhaled and exhaled air  ...   FEV1.. * The total violent forced expiratory volume: FVC.. * The relationship between them: FEV1/FVC.. * The maximum flow or peak flow: PEF.. * The maximum flow mesoekpnefstiki: MMEF25-75%.. The values obtained by spirometry expressed as a percentage compared with the predicted values of the person tested (depending on gender, age, height and body weight).. Spirometry before and after bronchodilation.. This same examination but resumed again and after we provide bronchodilation in question (usually 2 puffs of beta2-stimulant "aerolin").. This process allows us to see if the interviewee responds to bronchodilation, if we.. bronchodilator administration has a positive effect.. Curve flow - volume.. It is the graph of spirometry (Figure 2).. In the green curve before bronchodilation and red curve thereafter.. Figure 2 (this is the flow-volume curve of the same person).. photo1..

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  • Title: Arterial blood gases - oximetry
    Descriptive info: Arterial blood gases - oximetry.. Arterial blood gases - oximetry.. What is arterial blood gas examination? Is a test that allows us:.. (a) to see if the patient is hypoxia (low oxygen levels in the blood) or is in respiratory failure or not this kind.. (b) monitoring the improvement or not during treatment.. How is this examination?.. Using an insulin syringe (after being iparinisthei, to prevent blood clotting), typically receive arterial blood from the radial artery harvesting located on  ...   among many, which are measured are:.. * Oxygen.. * Carbon dioxide.. * PH (a parameter which indicates whether there is acidosis or alkalosis).. What is oximetry?.. The examination is done with the oximeter, as shown in the picture.. " onmouseover="function onmouseover() { function onmouseover() { function onmouseover() { this.. backgroundColor='#ebeff9' } } }">.. It is a humane method which measured the oxygen saturation of arterial blood and thus indirectly control if there is hypoxia or respiratory failure.. image 1..

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  • Title: Bronchoscopy
    Descriptive info: Bronchoscopy.. What you should know about the bronchoscopy.. With bronchoscopy Bishop:.. * Throat.. * The trachea and.. * The bronchi.. We check if.. * Foreign body (aspiration).. * Endobronchial damage.. * Location bloodshot.. The usefulness of the above are:.. * Removal of foreign body.. * Sampling of damage for examination (cultivation - cytology-biopsy).. * Wash tracheiovronchikon secretions.. * Control bleeding.. It is an  ...   minutes, taking into account `and preparation is needed).. The entrance to vronchoskopiou is nasal cavity or the mouth.. The preparation involves a local anesthetic sprayed into the nasal and oral cavity and mild sedation (drunkenness).. The control needed to be done before the bronchoscopy are mainly:.. * Check blood clotting.. * Cardiological examination.. * Spirometry.. * Arterial blood gases or oximetry.. photo2.. rigid bronchoscopy..

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  • Title: Sleep Study
    Descriptive info: Sleep Study.. Sleep Study.. It is concerned with which we can see if someone is suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or sleep and said: polysomatokatagrafiki sleep study or just study ypnou.. Mporei be in the hospital clinic or even home asthenous.. O the interviewee.. as shown by the photo,..  ...   various sleep parameters, such as:.. * Snoring episodes.. * Apnea ypopnoies.. * Blood oxygenation.. * Heart rate, etc.. The result of this examination, we can know whether or not the interviewee suffers from this syndrome and the significance of which is mainly determined by the number of episodes of stillness..

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    Descriptive info: OXYGEN THERAPY.. Oxygen therapy should be applied in each case of hypoxy.. The level of arterial oxygen must always be measurement (by test of arterial blood gases), to see the levels of oxygen in the blood and to determine the grade of hypoxy.. The partial pressure of oxygen.. blood measured in columns mercury (mmHg) and normal price is more than 85 mmHg.. * Less than 60 mmHg there is respiratory failure.. * Less than 45 mmHg is considered severe and requires immediate therapy with oxygen.. The objective is to achieve levels of oxygen in the blood at least 60-70 mmHg.. The hypoxia causes:.. * Damage to various organs.. * Limiting the patient both in work and everyday drastirotites.. * Reduces the survival.. There are diseases that can cause hypoxia or transient respiratory failure, as eg pneumonia, which  ...   failure.. * Chronic diseases of the chest wall.. Interstitial lung disease *.. * Recurrent pulmonary embolism.. * Pnefmonektomi.. The criteria to put the patient on chronic oxygen therapy are:.. oxygen levels below 55 mmHg.. if levels are between 55-60 mmHg and coexist.. * Polyerythraimia.. * Right heart failure.. * Pulmonary hypertension.. The duration of oxygen therapy should be at least 16 hours 24/oro, including hours of sleep.. NB: Should we check every quarter or month to determine the levels of oxygen and adjusted to provide if required.. Sources for oxygen there are 2 types: large bottle (fig.. 1), capacitor (Fig.. Also, the benefit becomes or nasal catheter (glasses) (fig.. 3) or mask (eik.. 4).. eik.. 1,.. eik2,.. 3,.. 4.. There are small oxygen tanks, which are easy on the movements of patients (eik.. 5).. 5.. pneumonologist.. fig4..

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    Descriptive info: PROPER USE INHALATION THERAPY.. It is VERY IMPORTANT to understand that inhaled drugs have excellent results to all the respiratory diseases being granted ONLY AS `IV and correctly used.. The condition for the drug action is to reach the target organ, ie lung and this is achieved by inhalation.. The route the drug is one that follows the air we breathe:.. mouth-pharynx-larynx-bronchial tree.. A percentage of the inhaled substance, on its way to the bronchial tree is deposited on the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat.. To get the maximum amount of drug to the lungs, you must first learn to hold the device correctly (for an inhaler), as shown in the photograph: 1.. fot.. and then follow these steps:.. DEEP expiration: to empty the lungs from air containing.. APPLYING THE DEVICE lips (fot.. 2)..  ...   substance to be absorbed by the bronchial mucosa.. 6.. Exhale SLOWLY.. Note: If the inhaler device is a must before use to generate renewed 2-3 times (as indicated by the fot.. Below is a list of all inhaled drugs at pharmaceutical companies, trade name, active substance and format the device.. Also photos of all types of equipment and detailed instructions as to give the same pharmaceutical companies.. NOTE:.. Finally it should be noted that inhaled medicines, both bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory (inhaled corticosteroids) may be administered alone or in combination on the same device.. Also in the inhaled form of cortisone does not have the same effects as when administered systematically (pill, injection).. Typical reactions to the inhaled form is usually (a) hoarseness (b) stomatitis.. These two effects can be prevented by oral rinse immediately after use.. photo3..

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  • Archived pages: 321