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    Archived pages: 321 . Archive date: 2013-03.

  • Title: Incollaboration with this site
    Descriptive info: Menu.. Thursday 21 March 2013.. News.. Main Symptoms.. Main Deseases.. Laboratory Τests.. Medications.. Pneumonology Articles.. Medical Articles.. Article Editors.. You ask - We Answer.. Congresses.. Guidelines.. Links.. Books Presentation.. Editorials.. Just another WordPress.. com site.. PNEUMON quarterly medical journal.. HELLENIC THORACIC SOCIETY.. Athens Medical Center.. Read More.. Incollaboration with this site.. Anyone colleque want to work with our web site may contact us at: synergasia@pneumonologist.. EDITORIAL ARTICLE.. Finally, fully upgraded, the site "pneumonologist.. gr" is again close to you, ready to answer any question or doubt, tell you mainly about Pneumonological well as numerous other matters of general medical interest.. The site now supports all document formats (word, pdf etc), pictures and videos.. Also you can easily see or find any issue on the index.. The module links ¨ "we have the main medical links.. Also outside of the links  ...   their treatment.. For any issue that concerns you are ready to help you to find the appropriate answer.. We should note that:.. ALL MEDICAL INFORMATION IS FACT AND CHARACTER IN NO EVENT MAY REPLACE THE CLINICAL EXAMINATION AND THE INSTRUCTIONS OF YOUR DOCTOR THERAPONTOS.. Colleagues Pulmonologists will find the site useful because they can publish their own articles to learn about science articles from other colleagues, to learn about the guidelines of scientific societies of Greek and International, for conferences and news regarding the specificity of.. Pulmonary.. Anyone from colleagues wishing to work with us can contact us at: info@pneumonologist.. Thank you and we can achieve the purpose for which created this site.. pneumonologist.. Go Back.. Contact us.. About Us.. View our videos.. Search.. Articles.. Authors.. Questions - Answers.. Homepage.. Authors.. Pneumonological Articles.. You Ask - We Answer.. Contact.. Info..

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  • Title: Cough
    Descriptive info: Cough.. Cough.. The cough is one of the main symptoms of the respiratory system but may be due to other diseases.. Distinguished rough dry cough and productive cough when accompanied by expectoration (sputum).. The 2 most common causes of cough are:.. 1.. infections.. 2.. allergies.. In no case can be regarded as something normal, even in smokers who have a morning cough (known to everyone as "tsigarovicha).. You should therefore consult your doctor.. To learn more about the cough, see below.. COUGH.. The cough is one of the most common causes for which someone should seek medical advice.. It is a protective reflex mechanism of the body which is: There are so-called "vichogonoi 'receptors in both the upper respiratory tract (pharynx, larynx) and in handset katotero.. Episis poro.. Diaforoi the outside factors can irritate the vichogonous.. receptors through adductor nerves carrying the cerebral cortex and the information from the brain via nerves in the lungs of kidnappings and respiratory myes.. Oi phases  ...   etc.. Divided into:.. * Dry.. * Production (when there is sputum production).. * Acid.. * Chronic (chronic cough is when it persists more than 3 weeks).. Causes:.. * Foreign body.. * Bronchial asthma.. * Chronic bronchitis.. * Gastroesophageal reflux disease.. * Vronchektasies.. * Lung cancer.. Sinusitis *.. * Heart failure.. Interstitial lung disease *.. * Drugs (angiotensin converting enzyme which is given for the treatment of arterial hypertension).. * Reasoning psychogenic.. Although a protective reflex as mentioned and may present some complications, such as:.. * Insomnia.. * Headaches.. * Syncope with cough.. * Haemoptysis.. * Fracture side.. * Break rectal abdominal muscle.. * Inguinal hernia.. * Pneumothorax.. * Larynx injury.. * Break frenum language.. * Swollen eyelids.. * Rupture aortic aneurysm, etc.. Investigation of the causes include.. * Good history taking.. * Clinical examination.. * Cardiological examination.. * X-bay person.. * Chest X-ray or CT scan and.. * Spirometry.. * Bronchoscopy, etc.. The treatment is proportional to the event.. Nikolaos D.. Chainis..

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  • Title: Expectoration
    Descriptive info: Expectoration.. Expectoration.. Expectoration is to produce sputum.. It is never the norm.. There are many situations which can be the main cause of which is.. To learn more about expectoration, read below.. Normally there is no expectoration (sputum).. Expectoration are secretions from the airways and out of the cough.. Sometimes it may come  ...   and quality of sputum, so to distinguish,.. * Mucous (usually off white, gray or black).. * Purulent (yellow or green).. * Serous (white or pink).. It may also be odorless or smelly.. Laboratory examinations of sputum include:.. * The microbiological examination designed to identify various microorganisms.. * The cytology to find tumor (malignant) cells..

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  • Title: Chest pain
    Descriptive info: Chest pain.. Chest pain.. The chest pain may be a manifestation of the chest wall diseases (muscular wall, ribs, spine), lung, heart and great vessels, esophagus klp.. Episis may be reflective of the conditions of the situations koilias.. Polles.. responsible for its occurrence is serious and endanger the lives of asthenous.. Chreiazontai then immediate attention, therefore you should consult your health care professional.. To learn more about chest pain, read on.. CHEST PAIN.. The origin of pain in the chest can be obtained from the following:.. * Lung.. * Pleural..  ...   organs.. In the context of the inquiries would have to specify the following:.. * The intensity.. * The location of.. * The extent of.. * A.. * If moved abruptly or gradually.. * If it is related to breathing movements, the movements of the torso and limbs, cough etc.. So the chest pain is divided into:.. * Pleural type.. * Retrosternal.. * Intercostals neuralgia.. * Reflective pain from organs of the abdomen.. Laboratory tests those that should be done immediately:.. * Chest X-ray or CT scan.. * Electrocardiogram or triplex heart..

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  • Title: Dyspnea
    Descriptive info: Dyspnea.. Dyspnea.. The dyspnea is a symptom ypokeimeniko.. Synithos perceived difficulty in anapnoi.. Mporei like to be a simple manifestation of stress, but we must not forget that one of the main symptoms of lung disease, heart klp.. Tha should therefore consult your doctor.. you.. To learn more about shortness of breath, read on.. The dyspnea is a subjective feeling of respiratory difficulty (difficulty).. It may be accompanied by respiratory failure or not.. Separated into.. (a) acute.. (b) years.. (c) Paroxysmal.. (d) dyspnea fatigue.. (e) resting dyspnea.. Causes: may be due to illness.. * Respiratory.. * Circulatory  ...   Pulmonary Disease.. * Swelling tabs.. * Pulmonary embolism.. * Pleurisy.. * Densification (pneumonia).. * Large airway obstruction (foreign body aspiration, food, development of mass etc.. ).. * Anemia.. * Pulmonary edema.. * Obesity.. * Hyperthyroidism.. * Central Nervous System Diseases.. * Myopathies respiratory muscles.. * Damage chest wall.. Some of the main laboratory tests:.. * Electrocardiogram or triplex heart.. * Spirometry, flow-volume curve, static lung volumes, expansive lung capacity.. * Oximetry at rest and fatigue.. * Arterial blood gases.. * Pressure respiratory muscles.. * Scintigraphy aimatoseos-lung ventilation or CT angiography in suspected pulmonary lung embolism.. * Neurological examination..

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  • Title: Haemoptysis
    Descriptive info: Haemoptysis.. Haemoptysis.. The haemoptysis (blood elimination cough) is one of the reasons why you should immediately consult the doctor and after being ruled out from the throat or mouth.. It is a symptom of disease more or less serious such as respiratory and other systems.. Remember that a large quantity of hemoptysis may endanger the patient.. To learn more about haemoptysis, read below.. Haemoptysis is the elimination of blood while coughing.. It can be pure or mixed blood in sputum..  ...   Echinococcus cyst.. B.. Cardiovascular.. * Mitral valve stenosis.. Ruptured aortic aneurysm *.. C.. OTHER CAUSES.. * Foreign body aspiration.. * Anticoagulant therapy.. * Thrombocytopenic purpura.. * Goodpasture's syndrome.. * Idiopathic pulmonary aimosidirosi.. * Pervasive intravascular coagulation.. * After removal of this lobe or lung.. * Strong cough (mucosal injury).. Investigation:.. Location bloodshot with:.. * Laryngoskopisi it comes from the upper respiratory.. * Bronchoscopy when from the lower respiratory.. Also required:.. * Chest radiograph or thoracic axial.. Therapy.. depending on the cause..

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  • Title: Bronchial asthma
    Descriptive info: Bronchial asthma.. Bronchial-Asthma.. The bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways.. In essence this is a yperantidrasi airway (the wall which has a muscle) to various factors, so that the muscle fibers to contract (bronchospasm) causing narrowing of the lumen of aeragogon.. Synyparchoun also plenty of pasty swelling and secretions (Fig.. 1).. which amplify the narrowing afti.. Etsi, limiting the flow of air passing through them.. The main symptoms of asthma are:.. * Cough (usually more intense during the night sleep and early morning hours).. * Wheezing respiration.. * Shortness of breath.. * Sensation of heaviness in the chest.. In the intervals between exacerbations people with asthma are free of symptoms and spirometry to normal.. The severity of asthma depends on how often there paroxysmoi.. Etsi separated into mild, moderate, severe chronic asthma sovaro.. Sto person is never free of symptoms and need continuing medication.. The causes of this narrowing of the bronchi are many, not always gnostes.. Anaferoume some of them:.. * Various allergens (pollen of flowers, household dust, animal hair, etc.. * Cold air.. * Exercise.. * Stress.. * Environmental Pollution.. *  ...   to exogenous paragontes.. Yparchei hereditary (and others of the family with asthma or allergic rhinitis, eczema, etc.. When appearing at an early age, the.. more times during adolescence is an automatic cure.. The endogenous asthma, in contrast to what happens in exogenous not found any factor to be considered responsible for his challenge, which is why this form of asthma is known as asthma unknown aitiologias.. Prosvallei older ages, and usually occurs after.. a respiratory infection.. The diagnosis can only come from history and symptoms of asthenous.. Oi main tests for the diagnosis of asthma are:.. * Spiromerisi before and after bronchodilation).. * Assay provoke asthma (inhalation of various factors that can cause asthma).. * Skin allergy tests (skin reaction to known allergens).. * Measurement of total IgE in blood (specific antibody is increased in people with allergies).. For the treatment of asthma there are several drugs that are granted alone or in combination.. Bronchodilators drugs.. * Inhaled medications.. * Theofyllinoucha (3 forms: injection, a pill, syrup, suppositories in).. Inflammatory.. Cortisone (3 forms: injection, a pill, inhalation).. Miscellaneous.. * Lock leukotrienes.. D.. Oxygen.. Photos.. bronchial asthma fig1..

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  • Title: Respiratory infections
    Descriptive info: Respiratory infections.. RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS.. CLASSIFICATION.. The respiratory tract infections are divided according to the anatomy in 3 major categories.. Upper respiratory infections.. Rhinitis.. Otitis.. Pharyngitis or tonsillitis.. Sinusitis.. Respiratory Infections average.. Epiglottitida.. Laryngitis.. Tracheiovronchitida.. Bronchitis.. Lower respiratory infections.. Pneumonia.. Pulmonary abscess.. Empyema.. Recital in FACTORS.. The factors that cause infections (and not just the respiratory system) belonging to the following groups of microorganisms:.. Viruses.. Microbes.. 3.. Fungi.. 4.. Parasites.. The last 2 categories cause infection under specific conditions (eg in immunosuppressed people, etc.. METHOD OF TRANSMISSION.. The person who suffers spread primarily by coughing and sneezing and by talking or laughing, droplets containing the pathogenic agent.. The transmission is airborne (by inhaling droplets carrying the pathogenic agent) or by inoculation of the pathogen to the mucosa of the mouth, nose or eyes.. This mode of transmission is limited to viral infections.. On pneumonias no fear transmitting the virus, only in specific infections such as tuberculosis.. SYMPTOMS.. Varies according to causative agent, the detection of infection and the status of the individual (age, existence or not of other pathological factors, etc.. COMMON COLD.. The symptoms of the common cold are known to everyone.. Initially there is a sense of dryness of the mouth and nose to follow after one or two 24/ora, and nasal obstruction,  ...   lung parenchyma.. Symptoms and severity depend not so much by the extent that, as the bacterial factor that has caused on the one hand and the situation of the person infected by the other.. DIAGNOSIS.. More often than not need to look for the causative agent.. Where necessary, especially in severe cases (pneumonia, empyema, etc.. ), the laboratory can help with various techniques.. Raising antibodies against specific agent (virus or microbe).. Direct identification of the organism with special stains (Microsoft).. Cultivation of various materials (sputum, blood, pleural fluid, etc.. Imaging methods (radiography, axial).. Blood tests (white blood cell growth, increased infection indices: ESR, CRP).. THERAPY.. The vast majority of infections, particularly upper and the average respiratory system caused by viruses are seasonal outbreaks (mainly in autumn and winter) and aftoiasimes.. Treatment is primarily symptomatic (symptomatic relief).. It should be noted that often the infections of viral origin epiplekontai the course of antimicrobial agents and only in this case it is necessary to use antibiotics.. PREVENTION.. * Wash hands.. * Avoid sites that many people encounter.. * Healthy lifestyle.. * Vaccines: against the influenza virus and pneumococcus, but recommended only for special populations (people with chronic respiratory or heart problems, etc.. X-RAY IMAGES.. THORACIC X-WOMEN 39 YEARS OF AGE.. Bilateral Lung AFTER viral infection.. pneumonia photo1..

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  • Title: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    Descriptive info: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a general term that includes several so-called disease (chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, chronic obstructive airway disease, etc.. ) but which in fact is it's the same problem views.. It is a chronic disease, slow progression, characterized by airway obstruction (blocking air flow).. The main cause is the kapnisma.. Oso greater the exposure to cigarette smoke (many cigarettes per day and smoking years).. the greater the risk for development of nosou.. Apotelei one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide.. Depend on the severity of the disease.. In mild form, the only symptom is usually the so-called "tsigarovichas.. In moderate form, except the cough may have increased expectoration and low degree of dyspnea and / or wheezing and fatigue.. In severe form, have frequent episodes of coughing and wheezing and shortness of breath that can be devoted to rest and also cyanosis, peripheral edema.. The diagnosis is usually made of the same symptoms, and demonstrated by spirometry.. So when  ...   pharmaceutical.. * The most important thing is to stop smoking.. " onmouseover="function onmouseover() { function onmouseover() { function onmouseover() { function onmouseover() { this.. style.. backgroundColor='#ebeff9' } } } }">.. * The loss of body weight (in case of obesity).. * The vaccine antigrippiko.. v.. farmakeftiki.. * Theofyllinoucha (available at: pill, suppository, syrup and injectable form).. Cortisone (3 forms: inhaled, pill, injection).. Because COPD and bronchial asthma are similar, it should be clear that the obstruction seen in COPD is permanent in contrast to bronchial asthma where intervals of seizures in patients free of symptoms and spirometry fysiologiki.. Episis the response to bronchodilation.. is important and is the norm for those suffering from bronchial asthma.. Here are 3 photos: one photo shows a normal lung, the other 2 are from Smoking.. Here is a stunning photo of a patient with COPD who underwent a CT scan at the Medical Center of Athens, which shows a very vivid way the cause of the disease (very grateful to Mr N.. Bontozoglou for granting the license to publish the photo).. photo1.. photo2.. photo3.. copd..

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  • Title: Respiratory failure
    Descriptive info: Respiratory failure.. Respiratory failure.. Respiratory failure is a situation in which the body can not meet the requirements of tissues and organs that sufficient levels of oxygen.. Measuring the levels of oxygen in the body, is the examination of arterial blood gases.. When the level of oxygen in arterial blood is between 60 and 85 mmHg (mercury) is hypoxia.. If it is below 60 mmHg there is respiratory failure.. Note that the normal rate of oxygen is above 85 mmHg.. The respiratory failure is divided into:.. * Acute.. * Years.. * Type I (with  ...   that the normal price of carbon is between 35-45 mmHg.. How apparent respiratory failure;.. * Anxiety.. * Tachycardia.. * Tachypnea.. * Headache.. Cyanosis *.. * Mental confusion.. * Sweating.. * Tremor, etc.. The causes of respiratory failure.. * Acute or chronic bronchitis.. * Obstructive sleep apnea.. * Failures of the lungs (pneumonia, pleurisy, pneumothorax, etc.. * Damage chest wall (kyfoskoliosi etc.. * Failures of the muscle wall.. * Nervous System Damage.. * Medicines.. * Pulmonary edema, etc.. Treatment of respiratory failure is the oxygen therapy and of course the appropriate response to the causative..

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  • Title: Lung cancer
    Descriptive info: Lung cancer.. Lung cancer.. Cancer in general is a complicated and long process that leads the body's cells to grow autonomously and anarchy, with no objective and create ogkous.. Ta call these cells and tumor volume neoplasma.. Apo cancer may be affected by each institution.. anthropou.. Apotelei of one of the leading causes of death.. RATIONALE.. The reasoning is over `agnosti.. Ostoso many known carcinogens (those factors that can lead to carcinogenesis).. These are the most important factors incriminated kapnisma.. Alloi are:.. * Environmental pollution.. * Asbestos.. * Genetic factors.. * Old scars lung.. * Radioactive aktonovolia.. * Various elements: nickel, benzopyrene, chloromethylaitheres, arsenic, chromium.. CANCER LUNG CANCER or VROGCHOGENIS.. Separated into 2 major categories:.. Small cell lung (MKP).. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).. In turn, the NSCLC ypodiareitai to:.. * Squamous.. Adenocarcinoma *.. * Megalokkytariko.. * Cough.. * Expectoration.. Pain.. * Wheezing.. Dysphagia *.. We should note that symptoms may be getting from the institutions which have developed metastasi.. Episis sometimes very different tumors secrete hormones that cause a variety of disorders, which called paraneoplastic events:.. * Metabolic (calcium in the blood, hypoglycemia, etc.. * Neurological (aesthetic and / or motor neuropathy, vertigo, imbalance, manic depression, etc.. * Muscle (muscle degeneration, pain, etc.. * Vascular (thrombophlebitis).. * Blood  ...   laboratory diagnosis (biopsy and / or cytology) should be the staging (what stage the cancer is).. We note that both the treatment and the prognosis depends on 2 factors:.. the tissue type of cancer (MKP, NSCLC).. stage of disease.. For the staging required mainly the following tests:.. * CT scan (except of course the chest) and brain-ventricular (check for metastasis to other organs).. * Bone scan.. * Bronchoscopy (in cases of endobronchial location of the cancer).. The stage of the disease depends on several factors including:.. * The size of the tumor and if affects various organs of the chest (blood vessels, heart, chest wall, etc.. * Whether or not metastatic outbreak.. * Whether or not filtered nodes and what those groups (lymph nodes near the damage, the mediastinum, etc.. The therapeutic methods, alone or in combination are:.. Surgery.. Chemotherapy.. Radiotherapy.. As regards the surgical treatment should be aware that:.. The MKP-no surgery except in certain special cases, even in early stages due to the aggressiveness of.. Only NSCLC surgery and depends on the following factors:.. * The stage of disease.. * The location of the tumor.. * The patient's age (relative factor).. * The patient's condition (respiratory function, cardiac function, etc.. X-PATIENT WITH.. BRONCHOGENIC.. LUNG CANCER.. lung cancer..

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  • Archived pages: 321