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    Archived pages: 251 . Archive date: 2013-05.

  • Title: Ancient greek thesaurus
    Descriptive info: .. Historical periods and civilizations.. • Neolithic Period.. • Cycladic civilization.. • Minoan civilization.. • Mycenaean civilization.. • Geometric period.. • Classical period.. • Hellenistic period.. • Roman period.. • Byzantine period.. Archaeological Areas.. • The Acropolis of Athens.. • Ancient Olympia the sanctuary.. • The Archaeological area of Eleusis.. • The Archaeological area of Delphi.. • Minoan Crete - the Knossos palace.. Social life and activities in ancient Greece.. • The Olympic Games.. • The Eleusinian Mysteries.. Interesting.. • The Ancient Greeks in America.. • The new museum of Acropolis.. • Ancient Greek jewelry blog.. • Mycenaean weapons.. •.. Privacy policy.. Home.. |.. Museums.. Theaters.. Temples.. Thesaurus.. Links.. Contact.. sitemap.. Welcome to.. Ancient Greek Thesaurus.. A time travel thru all the phases of the ancient greek history.. and greek mythology.. The site contains material from all ancient historical periods.. This material has to do with history references about civilizations that took place in the greek region , ancient greece, info about ancient greek temples, visits in greek museums , greek sculpture, statues, museum collections and exhibits , greek mythology and greek gods, ancient olympic games, pottery photos , pictures of figurines, image paintings , jewellery pics, sculptures and art generally.. Important archaeological places, excavations, unpublished pics from greek museums ,  ...   (Jun 27 2008).. The Olympic Flame in Beijing (Apr 01 2008).. From the land of the Labyrinth to New York City.. Minoan Crete at the Onassis Cultural Center (Mar 06 2008).. An exhibition at the Byzantine and Christian Museum follows the long history of enamel making (Feb 02 2008).. New discoveries at the Ash Altar of Zeus -- Mount Lykaion (Jan 28 2008).. President Papoulias's first visit to the New Acropolis Museum (Jan 12 2008).. Vesuvius ash fell in area of Volvi (Jan 8 2008).. Open for the public the ground floor of new Museum of Acropolis in Athens (21/12/2007).. Constantine the Great - Exhibition in Trier (Oct 2007).. The new discoveries of Yannis and Efis Sakellaraki in "new Knossos of" top of Psiloreitis Zominthos: (1/10/2007).. Diachronic the presence of Macedonians in northern Greece.. The speech of Georgia Karamitroy-Mentesidi in Thessalonica for the archaeological discoveries in Aiani Kozani (02/02/2007).. Click to join Olympic-games.. Greek Info Site.. home.. -.. forum.. join.. previous.. next.. members.. powered by.. RingsWorld.. com.. This site is part of an.. Internet Site-Ring Community.. hosted at.. World of Newave.. Previous.. - List:.. greekinfosite.. - Home:.. Forum: greekinfosite.. Join.. Next.. Free map of ancient Greek theaters download it now!!!.. Luxury accommodation Villa Helidona in Crete with private pool - Visit Knossos..

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  • Title: The Neolithic civilization (6800-3300 BC) in Greece
    Descriptive info: Neolithic civilization.. • Organization of Neolithic Settlements.. • Early and Middle Bronze Age.. • The Prehistoric Collection of the National Archaeological Museum.. • Neolithic Figurines.. • Neolithic Pottery.. • Neolithic civilization.. Photo Gallery.. • Neolithic Jewelry.. Plan your summer holidays to Pelion - visit Sesklo - Dimini with booking.. com from 35€ a day.. The Neolithic civilization (6800-3300 BC).. Neolithic Civilization is the long era, the main characteristics of which are farming , stock-breeding , permanent installation and the extensive use of stone , as well.. From the stage of the nomadic hunter-gatherer (Palaeolithic Era ) man entered the stage of farmer-husbandman and dominated his natural environment.. This neolithic revolution is affected at the beginning of the 7th millenium.. The neolithic Civilization lasted more than three thousand years and is divided into five main phases, the Aceramic (6800-6500 BC) , the Early Neolithic (6500-5800 BC) ,the Middle Neolithic (5300-4500 BC) and the Late Neolithic or Chalcolithic (4500-3300 BC).. The neolithic settlements extended all over Greece ,  ...   he turned to the outside world and developed extensive commercial transactions.. The find of obsidian from Melos and other imports in the mainland give clear evidence of the wide development of seafaring in the Aegean Sea from the very beginning of the Neolithic period.. One of the most significant achievements of that period was the craft specialisation.. The necessity of house equipment with tools, pottery, weaving and matting products led to the first craftsmen, who transmitted their craft from generation to generation.. In the Late Neolithic Period the processing of metalls is consolidated.. The permanent residence leads to the institution of family and other social and communal institutions.. Articles such as tools , vases vessels, jars , domesticated animals belonged to private properties, while sheep-folds, corp barns , places of public use and the fortifications of settlements were obviously under the authority of the community.. These unwritten institutions of private and communal property were legated to the humanity since then and are effective almost unchangeable until nowadays..

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  • Title: The Cycladic civilization
    Descriptive info: Cycladic civilization.. • Art in Early Cycladic period.. • Art in Middle Cycladic period.. • Art in Late Cycladic period.. • Early Cycladic Figurines.. • Cycladic frying pan vessels.. • Cycladic wall paintings from Akrotiri Thera.. • The excavation at Akrotiri - Thera.. • The prehistoric settlement at Phylakopi - Milos.. • The Cycladic civilization.. • Cycladic Pottery.. • Cycladic Idols.. • Cycladic Jewellery.. • Cycladic Frescoes.. Interesting!.. The Cycladic civilization (3200-1100 BC).. Cycladic.. is the term used for the civilization that developed in the region of the Cycladic Islands during the Bronze Age (3200-1100 B.. C).. The acme of this civilisation was reached during the first phase of the Bronze age (3rd millenium B.. C.. ) and it is known as the Early Cycladic Period.. The beginning of a permanent human activity in Cyclades dates at about 5th millenium BC.. There exists, however, and earlier but indirect evidence of occupancy for example, samples of obsidian from the Melos has been found in positions in Greek mainland (cave Franchthi Argolida) that is dated at the 8th millenium B.. In the later neolithic period are dated a lot of discoveries from the settlement that has been excavated in the small island Saliagkos near Antiparos , while the ruins that were found in the Kefala position of Kea belong to the early Bronze Age (3200 BC).. At the same  ...   phase, houses were built on low hills to be protected from flooding and enemies and were not protected by walls; the residents were activating in fishing.. In the second phase, exterior invasions forced the residents to retreat inside, in hills that were protected from walls, the houses were built near one another and only small runways were left between them (Kastri Syros, Naxos, Kynthos of Delos).. This movement implies loss of control of seas and the threat of an external enemy, perhaps minoan Crete.. In the third phase, the influence Crete was strong; the settlements were again seaside (Milos-Filakopi I, Paros, Amorgos, Thera) and constituted centres of conduct of the Cretan trade.. The same happened in the next period, which covered the first half of the 3rd millennium and called Middle Cycladic period (2000-1550 BC).. The settlements - according to the findings from Melos (Filakopi II), Paros (Paroikia), Kea (Agia Irini), Thera, Therasia, Delos, Tinos, Syros, Sifnos and Amorgos was - all coastal ports and were on trade between Crete and the rest of the Greece.. In the beginning of the next period (Late Cycladic period) Cyclades were generally influenced by minoan sea domination.. With the destruction of minoan civilization - as a result of the explosion of Thera s volcano(about 1520 BC) - appeared on the scene the Myceneans.. Plan your summer holidays to Santorini with booking..

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  • Title: The Minoan civilization (2600-1200 BC)
    Descriptive info: Minoan civilization.. • Knossos palace.. • Phaistos palace.. • Phaistos disk.. • Ancient Gortyn.. • Crete's strategical position.. • Minoan's Art - Linear A and B.. • The Minoan civilization.. • Minoan Pottery.. • Minoan Figurine.. • Minoan Jewellery.. • Minoan Painting.. Villa Helidona in Crete - private pool villa.. Cheap Villas in Crete - Elounda.. The Minoan civilization (2600-1200 BC).. MINOAN CHRONOLOGY.. Prepalatial period.. Early Minoan I, Early Minoan II, Early Minoan III , Middle Minoan IA (3000-1900 BC).. Protopalatial period -.. Middle Minoan IB, Middle Minoan II (1900-1700 BC).. Neopalatial period.. - Middle Minoan IIIA, Middle Minoan IIIB, Late Minoan IA, Late Minoan IB (1700-1400 BC).. Postpalatial period.. - Late Minoan II, Late Minoan IIIA, Late Minoan IIIB, Late Minoan IIIC (1400-1100 BC).. The first inhabitants of Crete probably came from western Asia Minor well before 3000 B.. In time, as the islanders mastered the sea, Crete became a thriving maritime power.. Trade with the older civilizations of Egypt and Asia introduced new ideas and new skills.. These, combined with the creative energy of the Cretans, produced a distinctive civilization.. We owe our knowledge of Cretan civilization to the work of the English archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans.. In 1900 Evans began to excavate Knossos, the leading city of ancient Crete.. There he uncovered a magnificent structure that he called the Palace of Minos, so naming it from the (perhaps) mythical king of Crete who appears in several Greek legends (hence the civilization of Crete is often called Minoan).. Evans also established the usually accepted chronology for the history of Crete:.. Early Minoan I-III.. (2600-2000),.. Middle Minoan I-III.. (2000-1600), and.. Late Minoan I-III.. (1600-1100).. He based his chronology on the residue of pottery found at Knossos, for different styles of pottery provide an accurate record of the successive stages of civilization at a site.. In the rest of the Crete, the royal pottery of the Late Minoan II period is missing, that was manufactured only at Knossos, so that the Late Minoan Ι period continues there until the beginning of the Late Minoan III period.. The royal pottery of the Middle Minoan ΙΙ period was constructed only at Knossos and Phaistos, having this as a result the duration of the Middle Minoan I period in the rest of Crete, to extend until the beginning of the Middle Minoan III period.. The existence of the early Minoan period III, which occasionally questioned, finally proved.. According to the dating of these periods, it was extending in the 3rd millennium BC to 2100 BC, while the Middle Minoan period from 2100 BC to 1600 BC.. The Early Minoan period I-III is usually characterized as.. Prepalatial.. period, the Middle I-II period as the.. Protopalatial.. period, and the Middle period III to Late Minoan II as the.. Neopalatial.. period.. The information about the Stone Age, which is the principle of the development of the Cretan civilization, are very inadequate.. Probably existed here in caves sketches on rocks, but have not been found so far.. There are proved relationships with west Asia during the Neolithic era (in pottery forms) and with the Aegean (decoration pottery, stone vessels).. Since then,.. however, Minoans seek in their architecture (with continuous main lines in the diagrams) the subsequent cultural independence (so there are no palaces and fortifications).. Knossos must have been then, a public square.. 1.. The Prepalatial era.. The Prepalatial sub-period of the early Minoan period I-III presents the island in a closer relationship with the Asia Minor and with the Prehellenic phase of the Greek mainland.. Close are the relations with the Aegean.. But with the most narrow way, the island is joined with Cyclades (images and meander decorated pottery as imported products).. The settlement was thick, there were centers among others in the east (mansions in Episkopi and royal tombs in Mochlos).. Round tombs existed in the south (in Messara).. Between the commercial products distinguish the delicious stone vases and the gold jewelry from Mochlos.. The sculpture (stamps, buttons and the similar products) is gaining in importance.. The ceramic has the same patterns and similar surface treatment with the metal vases.. The spiral decoration appears for the first time in the early Minoan period III along with the white painting over a dark background.. 2.. The  ...   painting with forms from the Aegeans, but Aegeans took from the Minoans the representations with the horses gallop, individual patterns (fishes), and modalities of representation (representation of territorial levels).. In Crete now is beginning to flourish, in a magnificent manner, a more naturalistic formal art in sculpture and dance, but especially in frescoes (scenes of gardens, such as the Crocus gatherer , representation of marine fauna).. In ceramics (white painting on a dark background) appear forms (fishes) next to the ornament element (continuous whorls).. Growing can be seen at the art of the faience (Goddesses with snakes at Knossos, marine fauna, houses imitation.. In writing, the linear script begins to prevail against pictographic.. Around 1600 B.. the palaces of Knossos and Phaestos were destroyed again (probably by an earthquake).. It appears that the ruins of Knossos were looted after the disaster, perhaps even by Greek invaders.. In the Aegean, the Yxos were expelled around 1580 by the Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty, perhaps with the support of the Greeks of Mycenae.. Last flourishing of the palaces (1550-1450 B.. ).. Crete reconstructed again from the ruins and four palaces glittered now (Knossos, Phaistos, Malia and Zakros) with full splendor.. The relations with the Greeks of Mycenae were peaceful.. Most of these palaces were used for the exchange of products with the mainland, where now the Mycenaean civilization thrived.. For the social and courtier life information is given by the impressive performances with forms in frescoes (scenes from gardens, celebrations, dance scenes, jumping bulls, on cups from Vapheio (Lakonia), sacrifice scenes in temples which were located in hills, sporting events, also a military scene) and in signets (worship scenes of sacrifices, griefs and dances, divine appearances).. The ceramics is now dark painting on a light background and is simulating metal pots.. Characteristic for this season is the fact that the princes of Phaistos built summer palaces in Ayia Triada and they mainly lived there.. The rulers of Knossos seemed to use as a residence Archanes, in a similar way.. As a burial place created at Knossos the so-called Temple Tomb.. Around 1450 Zakros was destroyed by fire, as the palaces at Malia, and Phaistos had now lost it s importance.. Perhaps these facts have to do with the volcanic disasters in Thera.. Second flowering of Knossos (1450-1400 BC).. In that period were preserved only the palaces and the city of Knossos, however, it seems that they had been occupied by Greeks knights and princes.. This explains and the use of the Greek language in Linear B, as well as the Mycenaean weapons which were found in the warrior tombs at Knossos and Phaistos.. Also, ceramics show Mycenaean influences (simulated technique of Greek mainland).. From that time, it certainly comes the monumental royal grave.. at Isopata.. Knossos now overruled all over Crete and organized strictly the island.. The courtier lifestyle of Knossos although, followed the Minoan traditions and cults.. Around 1400 B.. C, Knossos was destroyed (perhaps by an earthquake) and the palaces were not reconstructed anymore.. 4.. Postpalatial period (Late Minoan period II-III 1400-1200 BC).. In this period the settlements of the Greek Mycenaeans spread everywhere.. Mycenaean grave circles appear now and mansion buildings.. Of course, there were noblemans and palaces, the traditions, however, of the Minoan culture continued in the religious section only.. The ruins of the palace of Knossos partially reconstructed, but for worship purposes only.. In general small worship temples are discovered in the ruins.. The palaces of Phaistos, Malia and Zakros had been abandoned, while there was a considerable Mycenaean activity in Agia Triada, and Archanes retained their importance for the lords of Knossos, which explains the presence of their tholos tombs there.. Shortly after 1400 BC is originated the famous sarcophagus from Aghia Triada, with combined Minoan and Mycenaean religious scenes.. Also retained everywhere the worship of the Minoan mother-goddess (idols from Gazi and Karphi).. The Minoan population is now moving more and more in the mountainous interior of the island (Karphi and Kephala).. Around 1200, Crete accepted migrations of marine peoples and followed their own systems of government.. For this reason, we can speak now for a subminoan season.. In the 11th century the Dorians settled and the Minoan identity limited within the eastern Crete (Presos)..

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  • Title: The Mycenaean civilization
    Descriptive info: Mycenaean civilization.. • The Acropolis at Mycenae.. • The Tholos tombs of Mycenae.. • Mycenae's Grave Circle A.. • Grave Circle B.. • Funerary Assemblages from Grave Circle B.. • The Pylos Palace.. • The Tiryns Acropolis.. • Linear B Tablets.. • The Mycenaean world between East and the West.. • The Development of Mycenaean Pottery.. • Mycenaean Attica.. • Mycenaean Pottery.. • Mycenaean Figurines.. • Mycenaean Jewellery.. • Mycenaean Painting.. Cavo Petra guest house in Methana.. The Mycenaean civilization (1600-1100 BC).. Greeks first settled on the Greek mainland about 2000 B.. Geography played a large part in the formation of their society, as it does in all civilizations.. Mountain ranges divide Greece into many small valleys.. The resulting pattern of settlement, so different from that of Egypt, encouraged the Greeks to develop independent political communities without the direction—or oppression—of a central ruler.. The broken coastline, indented with countless small harbors, invited the people to become sailors, traders, and warriors at sea.. By 1600 enterprises by sea had transformed a number of the independent Greek communities into wealthy, fortified states.. Chief among them was Mycenae; therefore the years from 1600 to 1100 B.. are often called the Mycenaean Age.. Two sets of graves found in the soil of Mycenae have given us a fascinating glimpse of the wealth and artistic accomplishments of this city.. The graves in each were enclosed within a circular wall.. The older set, tentatively dated between 1700 and 1600 B.. , was outside the walls that surround the citadel of Mycenae.. Interred there were wealthy Greeks, perhaps from a royal family or clan.. Alongside the bodies, the surviving relatives had deposited various offerings, for example, a golden rattle in a child s grave.. The second set of graves, inside the citadel walls, far surpassed the older ones in wealth.. These graves, dated between 1600 and 1500 B.. , were discovered in 1876 by one of the founders of Greek archaeology, Heinrich Schliemann, and are still among the wonders of archaeology.. Their contents include such stunning luxuries as three masks of gold foil that were pressed on the faces of the dead and a complete burial suit of gold foil wrapped around a child, as well as swords, knives, daggers, and hundreds of gold ornaments.. Bulls heads in the graves indicate the influence of Crete on artists working in Greece.. The graves tell us little about the political or social history of Mycenae, but they do demonstrate its growing wealth in the sixteenth century.. The city's king was probably its chief religious officer as well as commander of the army.. Elaborate fortifications and large numbers of swords and other weapons at Mycenae and other early Greek cities indicate that Greece was a more warlike society than Crete.. The economic organization of cities in the Mycenaean age resembled that of Oriental kingdoms in its centralized, vertical system.. This is shown by the contents of Linear B tablets, written in the same kind of early Greek that was used at Knossos, that have emerged from the soil at Mycenae, Thebes, and Pylos.. The largest group, that from Pylos, can be dated soon after 1200 from the evidence of pottery fragments found with them.. The tablets themselves are preserved only because they were baked in fire as these several cities were destroyed by invaders.. All the tablets are rosters and inventories, cataloguing oil, seed, objects of metal, men, and women, all in the service of the palace bureaucracy.. Between 1400 and 1200, Mycenae reached the height of its prosperity and created  ...   last feat of the Mycenaean Age.. About 1300 or a little later, various marauders began to attack Greek ships and even mainland Greece.. The identity of these warriors is still uncertain.. Historians usually call them sea-peoples, and their homes were probably somewhere in Asia Minor.. Whoever they were, they made trading by sea so dangerous that the export of Mycenaean pottery virtually ended.. The raids by sea were temporarily destructive.. But much more significant was a series of attacks by land, lasting roughly from 1200 to 1100.. Near 1100, Mycenae itself was overrun and destroyed.. It is still not wholly clear who these land invaders were.. Ancient Greek tradition spoke of the return of the sons of Heracles, by which was meant the supposed return of Greeks speaking the Doric dialect of Greek to their ancestral home in the Peloponnese; the same traditions worked out a date for this event, which we can equate with about 1100 B.. But we cannot accept such material from sagas without question, and this Dorian invasion has been debated from the beginning of the modern study of Greek history.. In an attempt to replace the traditional view, that the speakers of Doric Greek were roughly the last wave of Greeks to arrive in Greece, some historians have suggested that all the Greek dialects arrived more or less at once.. Only later, they think, after a social revolution of some kind, did the speakers of non-Doric dialects in the Peloponnese take flight to other regions, thus allowing the Doric dialect to emerge in linguistic documents.. This is possible, but the traditional view can also be defended and seems preferable on balance.. Mycenaean civilization suffered a series of shocks, and when we have evidence about Sparta and other sites in the Peloponnese we find many of them occupied by speakers of Doric Greek.. Sparta in fact became the most important of the Dorian states after the Dorian invasion had run its course.. The period from 1100 to 800 B.. is known as the Dark Age of Greece.. Throughout the area there are signs of a sharp cultural decline.. Some sites, formerly inhabited, were now abandoned.. Pottery was much less elegant; burials were made without expensive ornaments; and the construction of massive buildings came to a halt.. Even the art of writing in Linear B vanished.. The palace-centered bureaucracies no longer existed, but of the political machinery that replaced them we know almost nothing.. Still, the cultural decline was not quite a cultural break.. Farming, weaving, and other technological skills survived; pottery, though it was for a while much less gracious, revived and developed the so-called Geometric style.. Nor was the Greek language submerged.. Many Greeks, displaced from their homes, found safety by settling in other parts of Greece.. In a larger sense, the shattering of the monarchic pattern in the Mycenaean Age can be viewed as a liberating and constructive event.. We cannot show that the kings and dynasties in Greece were dependent on or were imitating kings in the ancient Near East, but the two systems of monarchy resembled each other.. If the Mycenaean kings had survived, mainland Greece might have developed as Anatolia did, with strong monarchies and priests who inter preted and refined religious thought in ways that would justify the divine right of kings.. Self-government within Greek states might not have emerged for centuries if it appeared at all.. But the invasions of the twelfth century, in which the Dorians at least played a part, ended forever the domination of the palace-centered kings..

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    Descriptive info: Geometric period.. • The Art of the Geometric period.. • Geometric period pottery.. • The Homeric Age.. • The Evolution of the city-states.. • The armed camp of Sparta.. • Geometric Jewellery.. • Geometric Figurine.. • Geometric Pottery.. Argassi hotel Zakynthos.. Zakynthos Ionian Island.. THE GREEK WORLD IN THE 8th CENTURY B.. The period of the ancient Greek history between the 11th and 8th century.. BC is known as Geometric period, and took it s name from the geometric shapes at the decoration of the vases.. A few years ago was characterized as the Dark Ages , because the facts for this period were very poor, and often was placed in prehistory.. The decline fall and dissolution of the Mycenean kingdoms after the middle of the 12th century B.. was followed by a period of approximately four centuries, during which a new framework was created and a new era was introduced for Greek culture and history.. The main characteristic of this period was the extensive drift and migration both to the inland of mainland Greece, and to the Aegean islands and the coast of Asia Minor.. Greek peoples that previously inhabited mountainous and barren areas in the periphery of the Mycenean world now moved toward the formerly prosperous, productive and fertile Mycenean centers, which they took over, opening.. the way for the creation of the ancient Greek city-states in the next period.. At the end of the Mycenaean period, the first peoples were moved from the northwest- according to Herodotus and Thucydides-, settled in areas which took their name.. Dorians and Aetolians from Central Greece moved to the Peloponnese, while Boeotians from Central Thessaly moved southward and settled in the area SE of Mt.. Parnassus.. Ionians from the Northern coast of the Peloponnese moved to the Saronic Gulf and Attica and from there to Euboea.. From the mountainous region of Mt.. Pindos, the Thessalians settled in Thessaly and the Magnesians in the area of Mt.. Pelion.. At the same time, the former inhabitants of these areas, which were gradually pushed back by the new peoples, moved toward the islands, the coast of Asia Minor and Cyprus.. Ionians from Attica and Euboea emigrated to the Cyclades and Ionia, namely Samos, Chios and the opposite coast, from Phokaia to Miletos.. Aeolian-speaking inhabitants of Thessaly settled in  ...   on limited arable land, due to lack of skills and resources from other areas, and the concentration of the land in few hands, were unable to face the new economic needs.. Solution to the crisis offered the imperialistic wars, the establishment of colonies and a new development model, based in the promotion of the small industry and trading.. Until the 8th century B.. , the extensive migratory movement had almost taken on its final form.. Thereafter only new cities and colonies were formed.. The growth of commercial activity and the quest for new lands resulted in the establishment in the 8th century B.. of the first colonies in the West by Euboeans, Megarians and Spartans.. All the above movements, which took place gradually, resulted in political decentralization and led to the formation of a number of small autonomous phyletic states.. In the 8th century the first city-states were formed; the city state was to become the basic component of Greek society in the historical period, within which emerged the ideas and notions of the panhellenic nationalism as well as the national and individual liberty, which later on led to the birth of Democracy.. The Greek nation developed new, stronger bonds.. The worship of several gods became common for all Greeks, the Olympian Pantheon was created and Homer and Hesiod shaped Greek mythology.. In 776 B.. the Olympic Games were established, and became the basis for the dating of all historical events until the end of antiquity.. In the 8th century B.. , the name Hellenes was established as the common identifying name of groups which inhabited Greek lands and had common characteristics, customs and descent.. Those groups spoke a common language, Greek, which now began to be recorded according to a new system of writing that was borrowed from the Phoenicians and adapted to meet the needs of the Greek language.. As a nation with cohesion, the Greeks were now ready to rule over the Mediterranean, establishing important commercial harbors and colonies from the Black Sea to the Northern coast of Africa and from Asia Minor and Cyprus to the coast of France and Spain.. The colonists gained prosperity, became great seafarers and, retaining their close bonds with their mother cities, disseminated Greek civilisation to the ends of the then known worl.. d.. -->..

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  • Title: The Classical period THE GREEK WORLD IN THE 6th CENTURY B.C.
    Descriptive info: The Classical Period.. • The Athenian triumph and tragedy.. • The meaning of greek art.. • Athenian life in the Golden Age.. • The Greek Achievement and its Significance for Us.. • The Persian Wars.. • The Peloponnesian War.. • The Fourth Century-Rise of Philip of Makedon.. • Alexander the Great.. • The Classical period.. Led lighting panel spots και λάμπες.. • Red figure pottery.. • Black figure pottery.. • Bronze Art statues.. • Marble Sculpture statues.. • Classic period Jewellery.. • The new Acropolis Museum.. THE GREEK WORLD IN THE 6th CENTURY B.. During the Dark Age, for all its lack of dramatic activity, the population of Greece must have increased, with unfortunate consequences.. Greece was relatively poor in agricultural resources, and by about 750 the population threatened to outgrow the local capacity to feed it.. The problem of limited resources grew more and more acute: the struggle for survival caused social and economic conflict as people turned on each other.. They solved this problem through foreign.. colonization.. In effect, the mainland Greeks of the eighth and seventh centuries, instead of importing foodstuffs, exported their excess population.. They colonized vigorously from about 750 to 600 and by the end of this period had spread over an enormous area, stretching from the northern, western, and southern shores of the Black Sea through Western Asia Minor and Greece proper, including the Aegean islands, to much of Sicily and southern Italy, then  ...   the great Peloponnesian War.. This overseas expansion through colonization led to a revival of trade.. The colonies supplied needed raw materials to the mainland Greeks, who in turn furnished them with manufactured goods.. Trade brought prosperity to many of the Greeks cities and, even more important, the intangible benefits of contact with other peoples and other ideas.. One of these intangible—and incalculable— benefits was the alphabet.. By about 750 the Greeks began to trade with the Phoenicians, who were using a Semitic script called the alphabet (from the first two characters, aleph, which seems to mean ox, and beth, house ).. The Greeks adapted this script to their own language.. At some later time poets used the alphabet to preserve and improve texts of the Homeric poems, which had begun as oral literature.. Two versions of the alphabet developed.. A Western version made its way to Cumae, a Greek town in Italy, and then to the Etruscans.. They in turn passed it on to the Romans, who developed it into the alphabet that is now prevalent throughout the Western world and is being used more and more in such recently literate regions as Africa.. Much later, many letters of the alphabet were used in an Eastern version, the Cyrillic form, the script for Russian and other Slavic languages.. Thus large regions of the world use one or another derivative of the Phoenician alphabet in the form that the Greeks gave it..

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  • Title: The Hellenistic period
    Descriptive info: The Hellenistic Period.. • Hellenistic kingdoms.. • Political History and Institutions.. • Significant Economic and Social Developments.. • Hellenistic Culture: Philosophy, Literature and Art.. • The First great Age of Science.. • Religion in the Hellenistic Age.. • A Foretaste of Modernity?.. Stay in Athens, Visit Parthenon with RoomRates.. gr.. • Hellenistic jewellry.. The death of.. Alexander.. the Great in 323 B.. marked the beginning of a new stage in world history.. Hellenic civilization, properly defined, was now at an end.. The fusion of cultures and intermingling of peoples resulting from Alexander s conquests had accomplished the overthrow of most of the ideals represented by the Greeks in their prime.. Gradually a new pattern of civilization emerged based upon a mixture of Greek and Oriental elements.. To this new civilization, which lasted until about the beginning of the Christian era, the name Hellenistic is the one most commonly applied.. While the Hellenistic Age is sometimes regarded as simply a final chapter in the history of Greece, this is by no means correct.. The centuries which followed the death of Alexander were so markedly different from the.. Golden Age of Greece that they cannot be accurately regarded as a continuation of it.. Though the language of the new era was Greek, and though persons of Greek nationality continued to play an active role in many affairs, the spirit of the culture was largely the spirit of the Orient.. The classical ideal of democracy was now superseded by despotism perhaps as rigorous as any that Egypt or Persia had ever produced.. The Hellenic devotion to simplicity and the golden mean gave way to extravagance in art and to a love of luxury and riotous excess.. The Athenian economic system of small-scale production was supplanted by the growth of big business and ruthless competition for profits.. Though progress in science continued, the sublime confidence in the power of the mind which had characterized the teachings of most of the philosophers from.. Thales.. to.. Aristotle.. was swallowed up in defeatism and ultimately in the sacrifice of logic to faith.. In view of these changes it seems justifiable to conclude that the Hellenistic Age was really the era of a new civilization as distinct from the Greek as modern civilization is from the culture of the Middle Ages.. Map of Hellenistic Age.. The Kingdoms of Alexander s successors 100 BC.. After the death of Alexander the Great,.. Perdiccas.. took the role of regent of the kingdom, after he shared with the other generals the duties of the governance.. Craterus.. became his prime minister,.. Lysimachus.. took over the rule of Thrace,.. Ptolemy.. in Egypt,.. Antigonus.. in the great Phrygia,.. Leonnatus.. the Hellespontine Phrygia,.. Laomedon.. in Syria, and.. Antipater.. , whom Alexander had defined as a viceroy in Europe, the government of Macedonia and southern Greece.. However, the absence of a strong man who would controlled the rivalries the ambitions and the competitions of those leaders, as Alexander did, proved disastrous for the unity of the great empire.. As a result, backstage intrigues appeared, and obvious conflicts also, and just two years after the death of Alexander, and after the neutralization of Crateros and Perdiccas, the empire led to a new division, in which Antipater was a viceroy, Antigonus the overall commander of the army with his assistant.. Cassander.. , son of Antipater,.. Seleucus.. took Babylon, and Ptolemy kept Egypt.. Two years later (319 BC) the death of Antipater rekindled the controversy until Antigonus, who was the governor of the Asia Minor, Greece, and Syria, recognized himself the title of the king in 306, and the other.. diadochi.. followed him immediately.. Neither this, however, ended the fighting.. In 301 BC the successors united and managed to make Antigonus inactive, who defeated and killed in the battle of.. Ipsus.. With the death of.. Ptolemy I Soter.. in 283 BC, Lysimachus in 281 BC and Seleucus in 280 BC the last companions of Alexander were lost.. The fightings for the prevalence in the eastern Mediterranean continued.. Finally four kingdoms were created, quite stable and resistant:.. Macedonia.. ,.. Egypt.. Syria.. and.. Pergamon.. , who survived, some of them for several decades and others for centuries, until all of them attached to the Roman Empire: Macedonia in 168 BC after the battle of.. Pydna.. , southern Greece in 146, Pergamon in 133, which the king.. Attalus III.. , who  ...   killed himself.. Many participants in the revolution from other allied cities were murdered or exiled.. Finally enforced the presence of makedonian guards in almost the whole Greek region.. The only who continued to resist were the Aetolians, who got peace with very favorable conditions.. Redistribution of power in Triparadisus.. Regent.. came from the upper-class, was clever, tough and experienced military man, but in no case could replace the hegemonic character of Alexander, and keep united the empire, dealing efficiently the ambition, the intrigues and the competition among the descendants.. The natural consequence was, two years after the end of Alexander, to be murdered by his own cavalry (321 BC), and a re-distribution of the kingdoms to be established.. He was not able to consolidate the unity of macedonian empire and to establish its monocracy, blinded by his pride that made him unjust and despotic.. The new distribution of power (known also as the Partition of.. Triparadisus.. ) which took place in Triparadisus (a greek settlement in Syria near the sources of the Orontes), had as a result the choice of Antipatros as regent of the kingdom,.. as the general commander of the army ,.. as governors of Babylon and Egypt.. With the new division the kingdom was restored to the European territories from Asia, in which Alexander had moved it s center.. The Hellenistic Macedonia had lost the characteristics that enabled to overcome the barriers of different cultures and languages, and the ability to administer the territories of the empire.. The admixtures of different cultures, the major conflicts and -in fact- the decomposition of the single kingdom, set the basis for multiple transformations and new shapes.. The Macedonian leaders to ensure their dominance in Europe, Asia and Africa, served first in an effort to weak their own makedonian state.. The result of all these alterations was, finally, to create new kingdoms with their own ethnicities, and a culture that had its own characteristics.. Phocion and Demades.. Meanwhile, Athens was still the source from which the macedonian state exported culture to Asia or just another military base.. The once strong city ruled by the friends of Macedonians,.. Phocion.. Demades.. They were different characters, seeking to establish their own perception of governance.. Phocion who was mild and honest, refused to accept gifts from kings and generals, removed the restless people from the policy and took care for the Athenians to occupy with the agriculture and rural life.. Demades was ambitious, dishonest, with moves which aimed to promote his own plans and profits.. consider them both as his friends and, according to.. , he used to say that he was not able to persuade Phocion to accept not even a simple gift, while he could not satisfy Demades with all that he offered him.. In the meantime the Athenians asked Phocion to mediate for removing the macedonian guards , however, the only he succeeded was to reduce the fees and increase the repayment period.. From his side, Demadis with his son,.. Demeas.. , wanting to prove his influence to Antipatros, visited him at the end of 320 BC in Macedonia.. Antipatros, however, had discovered some letters of Demades to Perdiccas (who was Antipatro s opponent), with which he called him for intervention, to free the Greeks, in his words as they were holding from an old and rotten rope.. Therefore he ordered to tie them, and his son.. , decided to kill Demeas first in the arms of his father, and then him.. Antipatros did not live long after the death of Demades.. Feeling not enough strong, he called Cassander from Asia and assigned him some of his duties.. Although he had significant assets, he failed to fill the big gap from the loss of Alexander.. Since the Macedonians hated his son, mainly because of his hardness, handed over his power to.. Polyperchon.. , a capable general and dear to the people and the army.. He urged, according to.. , Polyperchon and Cassander not to allow the power to pass into the hands of the women of the royal family.. Antipatros died in 319 BC, at the age of 80 years, and although he had undertook the governance by showing restraint and forgiving the generals who had turned against him in the campaign of Egypt, he defined by an irregular way his successor, stirring up once again, the battle of succession..

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  • Title: The Roman period
    Descriptive info: The Roman Period.. • The Roman Recessional.. • Empire on holiday.. • Decline of city life.. Roman history falls naturally into two parts.. The city of Rome became an independent republic in 509 b.. c.. and remained a republic until the old self-governing institutions were replaced by one-man rule after the Battle of Actium in 31 b.. Thereafter Rome and the empire it had by now acquired were ruled by a single man, holding initially the title of princeps (first citizen), and later the title of imperator (emperor) or dominus (lord).. This one-man rule lasted from 31 b.. to a.. d.. 476, when a barbarian chieftain deposed the last emperor -although, in fact, the emperors had lost their real power many decades before.. The era of one-man rule is often called the Roman Empire, to be distinguished from the Roman Republic.. But this distinction is somewhat misleading, since most of the empire was acquired during the period of the republic.. The distinction between Republic and Empire is therefore a distinction between the different kinds of government, and the word empire in this connection should not be confused with our modern use of the term in the territorial sense.. Prior to the establishment of the Republic there had been kings in Rome, traditionally from the founding of Rome by Romulus in  ...   north of Rome.. By capturing Rome they reached their furthest point of expansion to the south, and Rome became one of their capitals.. The Etruscans appear to have come from Asia Minor about 900 b.. They brought a distinctive culture of their own and bequeathed to the Romans such practices as divination by the observation of the flight of birds and of other natural phenomena; the Romans continued throughout the history of both the Republic and the Empire to rely much upon the information as to lucky and unlucky days given by the augurs.. It was also the Etruscans who probably reunited the small villages around Rome into one great city.. But the Etruscans were never popular in Rome, and the rule by Etruscan kings was such that the Romans detested the title of king forever afterward.. Although the traditional sixth king of Rome, Servius Tullius, was regarded much more favorably by the later Romans, it is possible that even he was an Etruscan, or ruled with Etruscan consent.. The Roman nobles rebelled against the seventh king of Rome, Tarquinius the Proud (Superbus), and Succeeded in setting up their own institutions after they had expelled him from the city.. The famous story of the Rape of Lucrece (by a son of Tarquinius) concerns the incident which ted to the Etruscan expulsion..

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  • Title: The Byzantine period
    Descriptive info: The Byzantine Period.. • Church and state in Constantinople.. • The Persian Wars of Heraclius.. • Byzantine Political and Cultural Achievements.. • Eastern Europe-The Byzantine Empire.. • Byzantine Art.. • The Christian Foundation-Popularity of Ascetism.. • The Byzantine Period.. • Byzantine jewelry.. • Byzantine mosaics.. • Byzantine icons.. Stay in Athens, visit the Byzantine Museum with Booking.. Byzantine map at the age of Justinian.. The Reconquest of Italy.. To the east of the Byzantine frontiers a new power was rising steadily, a revived Persian empire under the Sassanid dynasty which had succeeded to the Parthian monarchy of the early Roman Empire.. This empire reached the height of its culture in the late fourth century, but had been compelled to wage a long series of wars with the Romans on its western frontiers.. Treaties were frequently made between the two powers, but both sides kept them indifferently.. When Justinian came to the Byzantine throne in 525 he determined to settle the Persian question once and for all by negotiations, even though it cost him money.. He needed to have his hands free to pursue the reconquest of the West, which was his prime objective; and his country was still not free from barbarian invasions from the north, especially from the Asiatic Avars, Huns, and Slavs, who were beginning to raid across the Danube.. A peace was duly concluded  ...   this was the limit of Justinian s expansion.. He was hard put to it to defend his own capital against the Huns and Slavs, who raided far into Greece and late in his reign had to be driven off from Constantinople by Belisarius.. Justinian and Belisarius as depicted in a byzantine icon.. The reconquest was, quite certainly, from the point of view of Byzantine interests, ill-conceived.. The new empire could not be defended with the resources available to Constantinople.. Justinian, who fancied himself as a Roman emperor, though he was a Macedonian Greek, did not perceive that the empire he and his successors could maintain and administer effectively must be in Eastern Europe and Asia Minor.. Italy was invaded by the Lombards three years after his death, leaving only southern Italy and the exarchate of Ravenna in the northeast to his successors.. In 616 the Byzantine possessions in Spain were recovered by the Visigoths, and north Africa fell almost without a struggle to the Muslim invaders in 699.. However the Byzantines were able to retain southern Italy for a considerable period, and they won recognition of their suzerainty over Rome—largely an empty honor, since Rome made its own terms with the Lombards and later, in the eighth century, called in the Franks as protectors, when the Byzantines proved unable and unwilling to defend it against the encroaching Lombards..

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  • Title: The Acropolis of Athens
    Descriptive info: The Acropolis of Athens.. • The Acropolis ancient roads.. • The Theatre of Dionysos.. • The Stoa of Eumenes.. • The Sanctuary of Asclepios.. • The Propylaia.. • The Parthenon.. • Parthenon's Construction.. • The Erechtheion.. • The Temple of Athena Nike.. • The Areopagus.. • The West Frieze of the Parthenon.. • Sculptures from the east pediment of the Parthenon.. • Excavations at the Acropolis station.. • The Hekatompedon temple.. • The new Acropolis Museum opening.. Stay in Athens, Visit Parthenon with Booking.. The.. Acropolis of Athens.. The Acropolis was the most important religious centre of Athens.. The beginnings of the history of the sacred rock and the surrounding area go back to the depths of time, as early as the Neolithic period.. During the Mycenaean period, the Acropolis was a political as well as religious centre.. It was the seat of the local Mycenaean king, and on it stood a palace, while a fortification wall enclosed the summit of the rock, With the passage of time, after the 11th c.. BC and particularly from the 8th c.. BC onwards, the sacred rock was converted into a cult area where many deities were worshipped, the most mportant being.. Athena, the patron goddess of the city of Athens.. In the 6th c.. BC.. in particular, there was intense building activity on the Acropolis: new temples were built, old ones were repaired and other buildings were erected.. From the middle of the 5th c.. against the background of Perikles' building programme, the sanctuary acquired a large number of brilliant monuments, the supreme one being the Parthenon..  ...   over the Persians at the battle of Plataia (479 BC) and found the monuments and dedications destroyed.. The Acropolis bronzes have an impressive variety of types and a wealth of decoration revealing the ingenuity, imagination and sensitivity of the artists who made them.. During the 8th and 7th c.. BC cauldrons and tripod stands, decorated with figurines of nude males, warriors, horses, and griffin protomes as well, were the most popular dedications.. From the (6th and 5th c.. offerings commonly made in the sanctuary included statuettes of various deities, mainly Athena, and female and male figurines, all of them outstanding works of art of this period.. The artists abandoned the strict stylisation of the past and now followed the changes that had been accomplished in large-scale sculpture.. Figures such as horsemen, charioteers, athletes, warriors, rustics, kouroi and korai, were all rendered with greater naturalism and exude an inner radiance and vitality.. At this same period, various kinds of vases and vessels were dedicated in the sanctuary, such as basins, plates, bowls, cauldrons, wine jugs and pitchers (hydrias), decorated with figures depicting Victories (Nikai), sphinxes, sirens, winged horses that are perhaps to be identified with Pegasos, etc.. All these were outstanding works of art, most of them created by famous Attic workshops, though there are also some from other important bronze-working centres that flourished at this same period, mainly in Greece but also in the east and West.. The finds from the Acropolis now kept in the National Archaeological Museum come from the excavations carried out by the Archaeological Society of Athens from 1885 to 1889..

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